Following is a rough chronology that explains the different events of the campaign of 1808-09. All the maps that are linked to from this page, were made by Paul Morillon of France. These are very clear and understandable maps, made with appropriate military symbols.
February 1, The Swedish army in Finland is mobilized due to the continuous warnings of the Russian maneuvres at the border.
February 26, The Russian armies cross the border to Finland without declaring war on Sweden. General Klercker mobilizes the Finnish/Swedish army at Tavastehus (Hämeenlinna). The commander of the army in Finland, Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor soon arrives though.
Click here to see a map of the initial positions of the armies.
Click here to see a map of the Swedish retreat in March.
March 1, The Swedish retreat North begins as the initial plan of war is that the main army will leave southern Finland and leave the Russians to beat themselves bloody at the fortress of Sveaborg, while the Swedes can then replenish in the northern parts before beginning the reconquest.
March 2, Helsinki surrenders
March 18, The fort of Svartholm surrenders
March 22, Åbo surrenders and thereby all of southern Finland has gone over to Russia without the army of Sweden putting up any resistance at all.
Click here to see a map of the Russian offensive in southern Finland.
April 16, At the battle of Pyhäjoki the Russian commander Kulnev forces the Swedish troops off in retreat, although these - under G.C. von Döbeln - have beaten back two attacks.
Click here to see a map of the situation in the beginning of April.
April 17, Carl Johan Adlercreutz is made second in command to Klingspor, and the Swedish high command is thereby strengthened.
April 18, The battle of Siikajoki leads to a Swedish victory over the Russian avantgarde under Kulnev.
April 27, The battle of Revolax leads to a Swedish victory and the retreat is finally broken. The army is ready for offensive, but the high commander Klingspor is very careful.
Click here to see a map of the situation at the end of April.
May 2, Swedish general Sandels retakes Kuopio in the east of the country.
May 6, Sveaborg surrenders as the commander Cronstedt does not want to take up the fight. The surrender of Sveaborg is considered one of the greatest treasons in Finnish history.
Click here to see a map of the situation on the northern front in May.
Click here to see a map of the general situation in May.
June 16, The Swedish main army starts the counteroffensive down through Österbotten.
June 24, The battle of Nykarleby leads to no conclusion, yet the Russians retreat further south.
June 25, At Österhankmo, near Vasa, Swedish reinforcements arrive from mainland Sweden. These troops do not get sufficient help from the army in Nykarleby though, and are soon beaten in hard fighting in the town of Vasa. A peasants mutiny against Russian occupation follows in Southern Österbotten.
July 14, The battle of Lappo leads to a major Swedish victory.
July 24, Rayevskij is replaced by Kamenskij as commander of the Russian main army.
July 30, Swedish troops land at Kaskö, commanded by Gyllenbögel.
Click here to see a map of the situation in June and July.
August 10, The battle of Kauhajoki leads to a Swedish victory.
August 17, The battle of Alavo leads to a Swedish victory.
August 20, The battle of Ömossa Swedish avantegardes are forced to retreat.
August 21, The battle of Karstula leads to a Russian victory and Kamenskij thereby begins his counterattack.
August 29, The battle of Lappfjärd leads to a Russian victory
Click here to see a map of the situation in August.
September 1-2, Adlercreutz is defeated at Ruona and Salmi. The Swedish army then retreats north towards Vasa. These hard battles can be considered the final turningpoint of the entire war; from now on the Swedish army continually retreats.
Click here to see a map of the Russian counteroffensive Aug.-Sept..
September 13, The battle of Juthas leads to a Swedish victory
September 14, The battle of Oravais is the decisive battle in the war. Adlercreutz and his main Swedish army is defeated by Kamenskij and the Swedes are forced north in disordered retreat.
September 15, The battle of Kronoby leads to a Swedish victory
September 29, The cease-fire of Lochteå is signed.
October 27, The battle of Virta Bro is the last Swedish victory on Finnish soil as the Russian army tries to break Sandels in the east. This attack violates the cease-fire agreement.
November 19, The Convention of Olkijoki is signed and the Swedish troops agree to leave Finland. The war moves over to Sweden.
March 13, The coup in Stockholm leads to king Gustav IV Adolf being imprisoned and a military government takes power Karl XIII is thereafter made king.
March 22, Barclay de Tolly occupies Umeå in Northern Sweden after having marched over the ice from the Finnish coast. He soon pulls back again though, after having gained a lot in plunder.
May 8, The Russians take Piteå in Northern Sweden.
May 15, The battle of Skellefteå leads to a Russian victory. The Swedish pull back south, while the Russian troops soon occupy Umeå.
July 5 The battle of Hörnefors, between Sandels and Russians under Alexejev leads to a Swedish defeat and they are forced south. Although this, the Russian advance in northern Sweden has been stopped.
August 16, A major Swedish army reaches Ratan, under Wachtmeister, just north of Umeå, where 7.500 men are disembarked from ships, in the back of Kamenskij.
August 19, The battle of Sävar leads to a humiliating Swedish defeat against Kamenskij, who attacks north again. Wachtmeister retreats back to Ratan.
August 21, The battle of Ratan. The Swedish forces, protected by the massive firepower of their ships, beat off Kamenskij's attacks. The day after, the Swedish leave on their ships though.
September 2, The Cease fire of Frostkåge ends all hostilities in Northern Sweden.
September 17, The Peace treaty is signed at Fredrikshamn, ending the war as the Czar incorporates Finland into the Russian Empire.
October 8, The Swedish-Finnish army is disbanded at Umeå. The Final War is over.
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